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        « 人的需求從低到高不斷攀升  我國堅持東部實現高端產業發展戰略 »


        environmental change organizational change,for more detailed information on the mosaic glass, organizational restructuring, corporate governance structure

        one, environmental change - the new challenges facing businesses

        the survival and development of today's business environment is undergoing drastic changes, dramatic changes in the external environment will inevitably lead to the existing internal rules and procedures also will be changed. Respond to the rapidly emerging enterprise managers facing change has become the most serious challenges.

        1, knowledge-based economy increasingly prominent features of

        knowledge-based economy is a knowledge-based economy short, that knowledge is the economic development of the primary driving force with decisive force, and is a major resource for economic development . A clearer concept of knowledge-based economy by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in its 1996 annual report presented. OECD definition of knowledge-based economy: knowledge-based economy based on knowledge, directly dependent on knowledge and information production, distribution and application of the economy. OECD report says the economy of its member countries more than 50% are knowledge-driven.

        the reality of economic development also fully confirmed the above conclusions, the knowledge economy is making technological advances in national economic growth in the contribution rate continues to increase. For example, in developed countries, the contribution rate of technological progress the 20th century, 50 to 60 years was 40% ~ 50%, 70 to 80 years of 60% ~ 70%, and wide application of the information highway to establish,for more detailed information on the stretcher, after it reached 90%. A national rate of knowledge creation and utilization of new knowledge will determine a country's position in the international market.

        In the new era of knowledge economy, companies can no longer rely solely on low-skilled, low-wage employees and to repeat the work to achieve economic growth and development of enterprises increasingly rely on knowledge, but in order to meet the knowledge economy have brought challenges, enterprises must carry out organizational change and innovation, innovative activities of enterprises so as to provide a system and organizational safeguards.

        2, information technology, the rapid development of modern information technology

        development and application, has not only brought rapid development of information industry, but also the traditional organizational management have a significant impact. To the banking industry, for example, the U.S. banking industry information technology investment of 20% annual growth rate, the modern bank with information technology to improve service quality, improve service timeliness and guard against financial risks,for more detailed information on the shower cabin, the development of new financial instruments, extension services, space, the use of Internet banking, electronic money to provide new forms of financial services.

        information technology has greatly changed the traditional business mode of operation, which makes communications faster, products and services to lower prices, decreased transaction costs for firms and enterprises to expand the borders. Enterprises within the framework of a global combination of factors of production, the advantages of resources cargo configuration, a significant reduction in production costs. Moreover, information technology company also increased the efficiency of research and development of new products, so that the final product becoming increasingly "intelligent" to achieve global economies of scale.

        application of information technology is creating new forms of production organization and new management methods to promote the corporate organizational change. As the workshop from the hand to the machine system of large-scale industrial workshops of the factory system change, like from the factory system to the network changes are also being brought to human society, a new world.

        3, the trend of economic globalization, strengthening the

        20 century and 90 years since the World Trade Organization (WTO) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other international organizations to strengthen the coordinating role, and information technological advances and the rapid expansion of the Internet, enabling enterprises to carry out a global allocation of resources and production factors combination, and therefore the world economy has shown increasing trend of globalization. Between countries, economic relations between enterprises, and gradually move toward each other infiltration, horizontal integration, extensive cooperation and benefit-sharing a new stage form that you have me,for more detailed information on the pallet truck, I have you in the unified whole. The main manifestations of economic globalization: international trade have been expanding; international direct investment throughout the world; financial internationalization trend more apparent.

        globalization makes every enterprise faces international competition. Modern enterprises and their managers are to cope with economic globalization and the interdependence of products, services, capital, human resources, cross-border flows. Faced with this growing interdependence, many companies such as IBM and Ford, etc., are adjusting their organization and management methods to enable them to meet the demands of globalization.

        4, the market environment has undergone profound changes in the

        These changes are mainly embodied in: first, the market vagaries. Information transfer and technical updates of speeding up and shortening product life cycles, making changes in the market faster, the market demand is more difficult to predict. Second, the market competition. Convenient access to information, technological innovation, excessive speed, monopoly has become increasingly difficult. For survival and development of more intense competition among enterprises, which require the enterprises must be based on changes in competition, to make timely change and adjustment. Third, customer demand for diversification and personalization. This requires a center of excellence must be from the traditional low-cost, high-effective shift to meet customer requirements, from product concept ideas are turned into customers, we must address the needs of customers and timely response.

        two contemporary corporate organizational change

        As a result of changes in the environment, making national enterprises are facing new competitive situation: from general competition into the cost and scale of technology, knowledge and innovation ability to compete; from domestic and regional competition into a truly global competition; from the full range of protected,for more detailed information on the extension cord, the restriction of competition into a free competition. It is a huge upgrade in competition under pressure in recent years, multinational companies in developed countries, represented by large enterprises, in order to beat competitors and maintain a competitive advantage, the first carried out a far-reaching enterprise system and organizational changes, from the enterprise institutional arrangements, corporate internal and external organizational form, capital structure and firm size and other aspects of a wide range of adjustment, restructuring and innovation. These adjustments and innovation in a relatively backward position of developing countries (including China) posed a severe challenge to the enterprise, but also gives inspiration.

        1, outside the enterprise organizational restructuring, strategic alliance

        the rapid development of the 20th century, international companies since the 90s the system adjustment and an important aspect of innovation, strategic alliance itself is not a new phenomenon, Its emergence can be traced back as early as age 70. However, in the 20th century, 90 years later, the rapid development of international strategic alliances, especially as the establishment of a universal system arrangement, it is past can not compare. Strategic alliance is a contractual relationship between enterprises ranging from the traditional (market trading, permits, etc.) and close equity relationships (joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions and other integration of relations) between the forms. In other words, neither the integration between enterprises established relationships, nor is it a purely market-oriented commercial contractual relationships, but rather a strategic alliance. Multinational corporations and international conglomerates, which has gained general establishment of strategic alliances in order to cope with the role of knowledge-based economy under the unprecedented growth of knowledge, technological competition intensified unprecedented challenges.

        (1) This is in order to obtain the complementary effects of technology and knowledge. As the Knowledge Economy increasingly rapid technological upgrading, none of the companies can monopolize all of its technological advantages in the field. The characteristics of technological advantage against the spread, through the establishment of strategic alliances can be formed complementary relationship between technology and advantages of interchangeable. Through this complementary and interchangeable, large enterprises with each other to share their results, together constitute the technological advantages of the status of other enterprises to ensure that the face of challenges in knowledge-based economy invincible.

        (2) conduct joint research and development is also an international strategic alliances among transnational corporations, the rapid development of the main factors. R & D costs under the growing knowledge economy and technological upgrading to improve the speed, so that large multinational companies do not want can not be solely responsible for R & D costs and risks. As a result, large international companies are among the key technology projects for the development of certain contractual R & D to build strategic alliances. Union is not a legal entity, its members independent, but closely coordinated, rational division of labor, the results among the members participating in the League with a share of. Can be seen in the increasingly important role technology and innovation, research and development on an unprecedented scale a huge knowledge-based economy, the fragmented nature of the enterprise in the form of powerless, while the market relations can not guarantee that enterprises and knowledge of technology ownership. Quasi-integration of the coalition will ensure that all EU companies the status of technology,for more detailed information on the frp grating, cost and risk is affordable, of course, coalition at the cost of technology, co-owned with others, but not exclusive. However, due to globalization and market expansion, there were still a few companies to obtain sufficient revenue to ensure the scale and market interests. So, if the IT industry, Microsoft, IBM and other giant 90s-style big companies have established a number of such alliances. At present, including third-generation mobile communication technologies, many of the key technologies, including the adoption of a strategic alliance in the form of research and development.

        3) the conclusion of a strategic alliance or a multinational cost-effective way to enter the market. With the intensification of global competition, multinational corporations, the sales network has become the key to winning one of the factors of competition, especially as sales of new products such as the Internet's significant role, with sales of the system becomes more important. For many products, the establishment of sales network is a huge amount of fixed inputs. However, the sales network has a similar public goods nature of the network, once established, the new product into the distribution network does not affect the original product sales, while sales of larger, unit fixed costs lower. Therefore, the provision of mutual access to each other's sales network the right strategic alliance partners so that each one to avoid a large costs. In short, the international strategic alliance is a knowledge-based economy outside the enterprise organizational form and system innovation. Through this alliance, enterprises to establish a kind of pure market relations, or simply different from the integration of a new relationship between form, forming a cross-cutting and mutual integration of external networks.

        2,for more detailed information on the bridesmaid dress, enterprise restructuring the internal organization of multinational corporations

        traditional organizational structure is a typical "corporate empires" structure. As the level of large radius is too long,for more detailed information on the laminate flooring, it is bound to have a slow, slow decision making divorced from reality, to suppress the grass-roots creativity and innovation issues. In an increasingly competitive, updated increasingly rapid, small-scale standardization of varieties instead of a large-scale enterprises to grow to global and is showing a trend of multi-center case, the traditional form of organization problem is sufficient to enable enterprises were eliminated by the market. It is based on this situation in order to multinational companies represented by big international companies since the 20th century, 90 years later, the organizational structure of the company have carried out the reform and adjustment. In response to the impact of knowledge-based economy and globalization, the international big business also conducted a general reorganization of the internal organizational structure. This re-started, mainly in two directions, namely, the flat management structure and diversification of forms of external organization and internal bureaucracy of the market.

        (1) International Business restructuring the internal organization of the first direction is flat management structure and diversification. This trend first manifested in the parent company or large multinational companies changing role of corporate headquarters, namely the parent company and headquarters is moving from traditional decision-making centers to support the institutions. It put many of the original decision made by their own transfer bottom turn is mainly responsible for their own planning systems across the enterprise vision and strategy, coordinating the interests of members and other major policy decisions. Specific production and operational decision-making, a subsidiary of the development and changes in the market's response, are handed over to a subsidiary of independent and responsible. At the same time, for those spin-off from the headquarters but not suitable for the exercise of the functions of distributed, in order to meet the requirements of the functions of professional, multinational companies set up some of the functions of professional organizations to master, such as the headquarters for parts procurement, R & D headquarters, distribution companies, etc. , etc. These were originally transferred out of the functions of the parent company after more conducive to the headquarters of the coordination on strategic issues.

        and adapt to these changes is to enhance the independence and autonomy of a subsidiary of the expansion. A subsidiary of the initiative to mobilize the international big business and multinational corporations, entrepreneurs are generally emerged from the upper to the lower functions of the shift, the parent company (headquarters) and the relationship between the subsidiary and other affiliates from the "command - the implementation of the relationship between "turned into" negotiations - trade relationship. " In addition to the headquarters for the company's management on major strategic and long-term plans for guidance and decision-making power, other aspects are more flexible and relaxed. As the above-mentioned institutional and organizational restructuring of the findings and the premise, the whole management system of multinational companies has shown flattening trend. With the lower organizational power and independence of the expansion of large companies have a significant reduction of management layers between them so that information flows, and management practices more efficient, so that changes in these functions can be achieved. According to statistics, the Global 500 enterprises in the first half of the 20th century, the average term of 90 years to reduce management links 3. For example, IBM's management links is reduced to seven from four, while the General Electric Company Vice Chairman through the elimination of production by 13 major companies in charge of reporting directly to the chairman, so that part of upper management from the three reduced 2 . Greatly reduced through the management level, large organizational structure of the company's management structure changed from flat pyramidal structure.

        (2) restructuring the internal organization of international companies in the other direction, it is the organizational structure of the external bureaucracy and internal market. From the organizational structure of the internal market-oriented perspective, a subsidiary of the independent interests of the increasingly obvious, between the affiliates and the parent company to obey the instructions bargaining relationship and the relationship is being replaced by incentives to stimulate the relationship; multinational network of subsidiaries, as well as members of the company the relationship between the competition, which makes the relationship between the multinational corporations within the system of market relations with the colors. For example, the famous Swedish ABB Group, constituted by more than 5,000 small companies, each company is a corporate entity, are independently developing its own balance sheet and Sun Yi table, while the average size of each company is only 200.

        from the organizational structure of the external branches stratification of view, the relationship between large multinational corporations to control their own except through equity corporate system of enterprises, but also through formal contracts or informal contractual control of a huge "contract assets" and a a variety of non-equity relationships hub. Through these formal contracts or informal network of contract formation, large multinational companies have established a virtually invisible "external bureaucratic organization." The bureaucratic organization, although different, the relationship between equity control through the established bureaucratic organization, but to a large extent has had a with the same or similar function, which also has a close co-ordination,for more detailed information on the Carbon Brush, benefit sharing, risk-sharing benefits community character. Multinational corporations, though not with external ownership of the business hierarchy, but equally able to control their behavior, so that they maximize their own interests and values of value-added services can also become a part of the company's value chain. In IBM's external bureaucratic system as an example, IBM in PCs has been able to achieve such great success, one of the reasons is that managing a large number of external suppliers, forming a large external network. As a member of IBM external bureaucratic organization, including Internet companies, software companies, retailers, remote network, also includes the storage company, data networking companies, even large companies like Siemens.

        3, corporate governance structure of innovation

        the traditional theory of the firm under the enterprise system and corporate governance practice have stressed the monetary capital in the enterprise central role, and so construct a corporate governance structure is also a to investors (shareholders) as the center of the structure, enterprise business objectives have been identified as a matter of course to maximize shareholder value. Knowledge-based economy is the core of knowledge and innovation, while the development of knowledge and technological innovation are indispensable to master the skills and knowledge of the subject - well-educated, master modern technology and management know-how, innovative and capable people. Because of this, such a system into the 20th century, 80th-generation is beginning to loosen, to the mid-20th century, 90 have been abandoned by many companies,transaction, global corporate governance structure be transformed into a major trend. Large international companies through the transformation of corporate governance structure, highlighting the role of human capital to construct an environment conducive to human capital play a role, encouraging innovation and institutional arrangements.

        (1) One of the trends is to give up in order to maximize shareholder value as an enterprise the only goal of the dogma, instead taking into account shareholders (monetary capital owner) and human capital and other stakeholders, a balance of interests coordination models . This trend is mainly in the United States since the mid-20th century, began 80 years of "Company Law" marked by the trend changes. With this trend, the typical American-style shareholder interests above everything else corporate governance structure has undergone some changes in continental Europe are working with the balanced structure of the convergence and integration.

        (2) The second trend is the number of high-tech enterprises to implement human capital management structure. The trend in the knowledge-based economy developed in the software, biological medicine, electronic information and other high-tech enterprises, since the company's core values focus on one or two key technologies, which determines the survival of enterprises. At this time, the currency's role in the enterprise owner to take second place, and the money chase key technologies and is willing to combine various forms and technology into the general state of human capital, as control of the business owners and the owners, such as technology holding system , human capital owners holding system, the stock option system have all become very prevailing institutional arrangements. The development of high-tech risk investment regime has further enhanced the human capital management trends. Although a considerable number of holding companies, venture capital or even a majority stake, but the risk of investment holding period is limited, the involvement of management is also limited, which makes venture capital has a kind of "loan capital" in nature, more emphasis earnings and less emphasis on management. Human capital management structure and thus be further strengthened and become knowledge-based economy under the conditions of the most typical form of corporate governance structure.

        (3) The third trend is the weakening of the role of the board and the CEO structure formation. In a typical modern corporate system, the board of directors of the manager's supervision and incentives constitute the foundation of the system,for more detailed information on the adhesive tape, but also solve the principal-agent problem of the basic ideas. However, with the widespread implementation of many large companies CEO system, the situation has changed. CEO has a far greater than the power of the previous general manager, not only for normal operation and management, but also in corporate strategy, major investments in areas such as financial arrangements for a lot of power. The role of the board of directors and the supervisory role of the decision-making are beginning to weaken, the power of board of directors limited to selection of a qualified CEO, when the company's strategy or the performance of major mistakes serious problem to select a new CEO to replace the former. In accord with this is that, to ensure the all-powerful CEO is not abuse of power, CEO often management buyouts or buy options in the form of a considerable number of companies have a stake in, is no longer a mere employee. This also makes the agency problem, although still exist, but no longer like the past, serious, moral hazard can be reduced. Although this CEO shareholding structure has not changed the basis of modern corporate system, but it certainly has changed.

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